The entire spectrum of reconstructive surgery is so vast that it may not be possible to elaborate on all the aspects. However here is an overview of the commonly done procedures and some of the very specialized procedures that our doctors specialize in.
Microsurgery is the surgery performed with an operating microscope. The structures operated are as small as a millimetre in size. The surgery can be done on arteries, veins, nerves and lymphatics. The common uses of microsurgery are reconstruction following cancer or trauma. It is also used to re-implant cut fingers, hands, legs, scalp etc. Micro surgery is also used in treating peripheral nerve disorders like brachial plexus injuries etc. Microsurgical techniques are indispensable in hand surgery as it can help to deliver better results.
Corrective surgery for congenital deformities Plastic surgery can be used to correct a large number of birth defects like hand deformities, deformities of the facial skeleton and other parts of the body. Cleft Lip and Palate Cleft lip and palate occurs as a birth defect. These conditions need to be treated by surgery. Surgery done at the appropriate time produces good results. These patients commonly need more than one surgical procedure.
Timing of surgery:
- Cleft lip (3 months)
- Cleft palate (6-9 months)
- Minor lip, palate, nose corrections (pre-school age)
- Alveolar bone graft – upper teeth correction (9 years)
- Maxillary and mandibular osteotomies – upper and lower jaw correction (> 16 years)
- Septorhinoplasty – nose correction (> 16 years)
The treatment of Cleft lip and palate is a multi-disciplinary one. In order to deliver the best of care to the patients, different specialists are needed such as:
- Plastic Surgeon
- ENT Surgeon
- Speech therapist
- Maxillofacial Surgeon
The patient who are treated in a timely manner have excellent results and lead a normal life.
Hand Deformity: Birth defects resulting in deformities of the hand are common. Fused Fingers (Syndactyly), Multiple Fingers (Polydactyly), Short Fingers (Brachydactylic), Absent Fingers (Adactyly) are some common defects. There may be a combination of these and those cases will result in more complex deficits. Some of these children will be benefitted with early surgical treatment.
Deformity of Genitalia Hypospadias is a common congenital deformity in males, where the opening of the uretra is at a position below the penis, instead of the tip. There are varying degrees of hypospadiasis and needs surgery to correct the deformity. Other surgically correctable conditions are epispidias, micro penis etc. Some children are born with ambiguous genitalia which may need surgical correction. Vaginal atresia is another condition which will need reconstruction. This is usually done before marriage.
Arterio venous malformation is a disease that are caused due to abnormal growth of the arteries, veins or capillaries. Haemangiomasare vascular malformations that appear soon after birth grow for a short period of time and gradually disappear over time. Most of these do not need any surgical intervention. However, some of these may need treatment, either medical or surgical. Arteriovenous malformations are another group of diseases which can present as a swelling, pigmentation or uncontrollable bleeding due to trauma. These do need some form of treatment like embolization, surgery or lasers etc.
Syndromal deformity are complex birth defects and can involve any part of the body. The syndromes involving the craniofacial skeleton, the hands, legs toes and digits may need plastic surgery to alleviate their condition.